In order to support your child with their maths effectively at home, it is helpful to understand the methods we use to teach them at school. The attached document details the progression through school of skills in addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. The key message is for children to understand the calculation in a concrete way at first (using apparatus), then using pictures to represent their thinking before finally completing calculations in a more abstract way (formal methods). This applies in all year groups. It is paramount for them to explain their reasoning about how they are calculating at every stage.